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Table 2 Essentials of treatment of 3 patients in this study.*

From: The spectrum of Apert syndrome: phenotype, particularities in orthodontic treatment, and characteristics of orthognathic surgery

Case Sex Age of insertion of fixed orthodontic appliance (years) Treatment time with fixed appliance (years) Age at surgical intervention (years) Kind of surgery
1 Female 11.4 3.0 13.3 Genioplasty
2 Male 13.7 1.4 Planned, but not yet performed Planned, but not yet performed: maxilla: distraction; mandible: BSSO†/mandibular setback
3 Male 15.2 1.3 18.6 Maxilla: distraction (advancement + rotation); mandible: BSSO†/mandibular setback
  1. *These patients were chosen exemplarily because their malocclusions were representative of the whole clinical spectrum of Apert syndrome and their treatment at stages 3–5 (see Table 1) thus covered the whole therapeutic spectrum ranging from orthodontic treatment and genioplasty exclusively to 2-jaw surgery with distraction.
  2. † BSSO = bilateral sagittal split osteotomy.