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Table 1 Definition of the landmarks, planes and airway measurements used in the research

From: Quantitative changes of upper airway in class III patients undergoing bimaxillary surgery after one-year follow-up: a retrospective study

  Definition
A point Deepest anterior point in concavity of anterior maxilla
B point Deepest anterior point in concavity of anterior mandible
Gn point The most anterior and inferior point of the chin
N point Most anterior point of frontonasal suture in midsagittal plane
Airway height The distance from roof of the airway to the upper border of larynx
Total airway volume Airway extending from roof of the airway to the upper border of larynx
CSA Cross-sectional area of pharyngeal airway section
APL Antero-posterior length of pharyngeal airway section
LTW Largest transverse width of pharyngeal airway section
Hard palate plane Plane parallel to FH plane and passing through most posterior point of hard palate
Soft palate plane Plane parallel to FH plane and passing through the middle point of soft palate and PNS
Tongue plane Plane parallel to FH plane and passing through the middle point of soft palate and epiglottis point.
Epiglottis plane Plane parallel to FH plane and passing through Most posterior point of epiglottis
Soft palate length The distance from PNS to the top of soft palate
Soft palate angle The angel formed by soft palate and hard palate
Horizontal tongue length The horizontal distance from the last point of the tongue to the internal border of the mandible
Vertical tongue length The distance from the top of the tongue to the epiglottis plane