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Table 2 Pain Score of Subjects at Different Time Intervals Based on Visual Analogue Scale

From: Comparison of the efficacy of intranasal ketamine versus intravenous ketorolac on acute non-traumatic headaches: a randomized double-blind clinical trial

Time Ketamine (n = 70) Ketorolac (n = 70)  
Mean ± SD Median (IQR) Mean ± SD Median (IQR) P value
On arrival 8.00 ± 1.1 8.0 (2.0) 9.01 ± 0.7 9.0 (3.0) < 0.001
30 3.47 ± 0.5 3.0 (1.0) 4.98 ± 0.7 5.0 (0.0) < 0.001
60 2.07 ± 0.2 2.0 (0.0) 2.42 ± 0.7 2.0 (1.0) < 0.001
120 1.10 ± 0.3 1.0 (0.0) 1.00 ± 0.0 0.0 (0.0) < 0.001
Pain reduction until 30th minute 4.53 ± 1.25 4.5 (4,5) 4.03 ± 0.98 4 (3,5) 0.003
Pain reduction until 60th minute 5.93 ± 1.15 6 (5,7) 6.58 ± 1.03 7 (6,7) 0.005
Pain reduction until 120th minute 6.9 ± 1.22 7 (6,7) 8.01 ± 0.69 8 (8,8) < 0.001
Pain reduction 60 to 120th minute 0.97 ± 0.42 1 (1,1) 1.43 ± 0.69 1 (1,2) < 0.0001
  1. SD = standard deviation; IQR = interquartile