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Table 1 Summary of Selected Studies Employing NMES in the Treatment of OPD

From: Neuro-Muscular Dentistry: the “diamond” concept of electro-stimulation potential for stomato-gnathic and oro-dental conditions

Ref Study Design Participants (SS; Age; NMES / RST; etiology) Intervention Type Outcome Measure Therapy Duration
[10] RCT 23; 64.5 ± 8.8 / 64.73 ± 9.39; 9/14; Stroke. NMES vs. RST FOIS 1 h/day, 18 sessions. Around 20 days.
[13] RCT 60; NMES 31 / Control29; 56.50 ± 8.73; 55.83 ± 7.97 15/16, 14/15; Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma. NMES, balloon dilatation vs. Control WST
VFSS
1 h, 5 days per week, 4 months.
[19] RCT 40; mean age of 48 years; 12 / 8; Stroke. NMES, RST vs. SES, RST FOIS 1 h (45 min of NMES), 20 sessions. At least 1 month (3 months follow-up).
[22] CCT 10; Elderly; Stroke. NMES, OST vs. OST, sham-NMES FOIS
PAS
DOSS
QoL protocol
2 stages of 10 min NMES with exercises. Thrice a week for 4 weeks (3 months follow-up).
[25] CCT 99; 75, 5/78, 1; 53 / 46; Stroke. NMES vs. RST (thermal-tactile stimulation) Swallow Score System 1 h/day, variable sessions. Did not limit duration (follow-up 3 years).
[26] RCT double-blinded 170; over 21 years old; Head and Neck Cancer. NMES PAS
VFSS
3 training sessions and at home 2 times a day, 6 days a week, for 12 weeks.
[27] RCT 20; Children; Cerebral Palsy. NMES, OST vs. OST, sham-NMES ASHA – NOMS 20 min of NMES after OST. Twice a week for 8 weeks.
  1. Legend: SS sample size, RCT randomized controlled trial, CCT clinical controlled trial, RST traditional rehabilitation swallowing therapy, WST water swallow test, SES sham electrical stimulation, OST oral sensorimotor treatment, FOIS Functional Oral Intake Scale, DOSS Dysphagia Outcome and Severity Scale, VFSS video-fluoroscopic swallowing study, PAS Penetration Aspiration Scale, ASHA – NOMS The American Speech Language Hearing Association (ASHA)‘s National Outcomes Measurement System (NOMS)
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