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Table 2 Quality assessment of the 15 articles included in the systematic review on changes in soft tissues after rapid maxillary expansion

From: Facial soft tissue changes after nonsurgical rapid maxillary expansion: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Quality Assessment Criteria(Point) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14a 15a
Age and gender distribution described(1) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Clinical features fully defined(1) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1
Sample size: adequate(1) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1
Presence of a blank control(1) 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
Prospective(1) 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Randomization(1) 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
Appliances described(1) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Interventions fully described(1) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1
Follow-up defined(1) 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0
Measurement method: appropriate(1) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Assessor blinding(1) 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0
Reliability testing(1) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
No dropouts or explained(1) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Statistical analysis: appropriate(1) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Confounders analysed(1) 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Results reported: adequate(1) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0
Reasonable conclusion(1) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Total 14 14 17 12 15 15 14 14 15 14 15 14 13 11 12
  1. aarticles included in the systematic review but not in the meta-analysis. The number of articles is the same as that in Table 3