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Table 3 Distribution of ratings based on physical exam (PE) and 2D images for 78 hemifaces of 39 participants

From: Reliable classification of facial phenotypic variation in craniofacial microsomia: a comparison of physical exam and photographs

  2D photo (n = 78) PE (n = 78)   2D photo (n = 78) PE (n = 78)   2D photo (n = 78) PE (n = 78)
Craniofacial feature n (%) n (%) Craniofacial feature n (%) n (%) Craniofacial feature n (%) n (%)
Orbital size    Brow palsy    Ear   
  Normal 77 (99) 75 (96)  None 60 (97) 65 (90)  Unaffected   
  Abnormal 1 (1) 3 (4)  Present 2 (3) 7 (10)   Normal 35 (46) 36 (47)
   Missing 0 0 Missing 16 6   All parts present, mild 11 (15) 9 (12)
  History of surgery none none  History of surgery none none   deformity   
Orbital displacement    Orbic palsy     Affected   
  Normal 63 (81) 62 (85)  None 68 (100) 69 (96)   Auricle 1/2-1/3 of 6 (8) 7 (9)
  Inferior displacement 6 (8) 6 (8)  Present 0 (0) 3 (4)   predicted size, not   
  Superior displacement 9 (12) 5 (7) Missing 10 6   all parts present   
   Missing 0 5  History of surgery none none   Severely malformedc 22 (29) 24 (31)
  History of surgery none none Smile palsy      Anotia 2 (3) 1 (1)
Occlusal plane     None 69 (100) 77 (99)    Missing 2 1
 Unaffected     Present 0 (0) 1 (1)   History of surgeryb 5 (6) 4 (5)
  No cant 44 (70) 45 (68) Missing 9 0 Ear canal   
  1–5° 11 (18) 9 (14)  History of surgery none none   Normal 35 (53) 44 (60)
 Affected    Lower lip palsy      Stenosis 3 (5) 6 (8)
  6–15° 7 (11) 11 (17)  None 56 (85) 63 (83)   Atresia 28 (42) 24 (32)
  >15° 1 (2) 1 (2)  Present 10 (15) 13 (17)    Missing 12 4
   Missing 15 12 Missing 12 2   History of surgery 1 (1) 1 (1)
  History of surgery none none  History of surgery none none    
Mandible       Preauricular tag   
 Unaffected    Upper lid coloboma      None 58 (78) 61 (86)
  Normal 42 (54) 39 (50)  None 75 (96) 76 (97)   Present 16 (21) 10 (14)
  Mild hypoplasia 15 (19) 14 (18)  Present 3 (4) 2 (3)    Missing 4 7
 Affected   Missing 0 0   History of surgery 8 (10) 9 (16)
  Moderate hypoplasia 9 (12) 8 (10)  History of surgery none none Ear tag   
  Mod-sev hypoplasia 7 (9) 11 (14) Lower lid coloboma      None 69 (92) 67 (94)
  Severe hypoplasia 5 (6) 6 (8)  None 78 (100) 78 (100)   Present 6 (8) 4 (6)
   Missing 0 0  History of surgery none none    Missing 3 7
  History of surgery 0 (0) 3 (3.8) Iris coloboma      History of surgery 6 (8) 7 (9)
Soft tissue deficiency     None 72 (100) 78 (100) Facial tag   
 Unaffected   Missing 6 0   None 71 (96) 70 (97)
  Normal 38 (49) 38 (49)  History of surgery none none   Present 3 (4) 2 (3)
  Minimal 23 (30) 20 (26) Strabismus       Missing 4 6
 Affected     None 75 (97) 77 (100)   History of surgery 8 (10) 7 (9)
  Moderate 15 (20) 17 (22)  Exotropia 2 (3) 0 (0) Preauricular pit   
  Severe 1 (1) 3 (4) Missing 1 0   None 74 (99) 74 (97)
   Missing 1 0  History of surgery none none   Present 1 (1) 2 (3)
  History of surgery 0 (0) 1 (1) Dermoid       Missing 3 2
Cleft lip     None 75 (96) 74 (95)   History of surgery 3 (4) 2 (3)
  None 71 (99) 75 (96)  Present 3 (4) 4 (5) Ear pit   
  Present 1 (1) 3 (4) Missing 0 0   None 73 (97) 74 (97)
   Missing 6 0  History of surgery 0 (0) 1 (1)   Present 2 (3) 2 (3)
  History of surgery none none Lateral oral cleft       Missing 3 2
Tongue     No cleft 71 (92) 70 (91)   History of surgery 3 (4) 2 (3)
  Normal 62 (94) 74 (97)  Cleft terminates mediala 6 (8) 4 (5) Facial pit   
  Mild dysmorphism 4 (6) 2 (3)  Cleft terminates laterala 0 (0) 3 (4)   None 74 (100) 77 (100)
   Missing 12 2 Missing 1 1    Missing 4 1
  History of surgery none none  History of surgery 3 (4) 3 (4)   History of surgery 4 (5) 1 (1)
  1. ato anterior border of masseter
  2. bnon-missing ear ratings which also had a history of surgery corresponded to ratings of “severly malformed, often peanut shaped” and “anotia”; these ear ratings were carried out despite history of surgery since surgery did not affect raters ability to judge severity of ear involvement
  3. coften peanut shaped
  4. Hx history