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Table 7 Cephalometric values of the upper airway for age differences (adults versus children)

From: Cephalometric norms for the upper airway of 12-year-old Chinese children

Variables   Males   Females  
  Mean P value   Mean P value  
Soft palate       
PM-U Length of the soft palate 4.7 <0.001 *** 1.3 0.009 **
SPT Soft palate thickness 1.8 <0.001 *** 0.9 <0.001 ***
NL/PM-U Inclination of the long axis of the soft palate relative to the nasal line 1.4 0.119   1.4 0.039 *
Depth of upper airway       
PM-UPW Depth of the nasopharyngeal airway space 4.9 <0.001 *** 3.2 <0.001 ***
U-MPW Depth of the retropalatal pharyngeal airway space 1.2 0.017 * 0.7 0.027 *
V-LPW Depth of the hypopharyngeal airway space 5.3 <0.001 *** 2.0 <0.001 ***
PASmin Depth of the retroglossal pharyngeal airway space 1.7 0.002 ** 1.0 0.008 **
Position of the hyoid bone       
AH-FH Positon of the hyoid bone in the vertical plance 17.2 <0.001 *** 4.4 <0.001 ***
AH-CV Positon of the hyoid bone in the horizontal plance 6.3 <0.001 *** 1.0 0.009 **
  1. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001.