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Table 2 Summary of Selected Studies Employing NMES in the Treatment of TMDs

From: Neuro-Muscular Dentistry: the “diamond” concept of electro-stimulation potential for stomato-gnathic and oro-dental conditions

Ref Study Design Participants (SS; Age; Gender) Intervention Type Outcome Measure Therapy Duration
[52] Descriptive 35; TMD patients (23.04 ± 3.5) and NSS patients (23.3 ± 3.0); all Female. TENS
TMD (19 subjects) vs. Control (16 subjects).
EMG
VAS
Applied once to each group for 45 min.
[53] Descriptive 24; average age of 36.5 yrs.; 15/9. Occlusal splint vs. TENS
A resting period of a month and a half between the two treatments– the order of the treatments being randomized for each patient.
PRI
Self-reported pain and / or tenderness score
Patients wore the splint 24 h a day, except during meals, for a period of 45 days.
TENS session lasted 45–60 min, 15 sessions (one every 2 days).
[56] Descriptive 40; TMD: aged 17–60 yrs. (mean age of 28 yrs) and NSS aged 22–31 yrs. (mean age of 25 yrs); TMD 4/21 and NSS 2/13. Masticatory function description.
TMD (25 subjects) vs. Control (15 subjects).
EMG
[57] Descriptive 52; aged 18–60 yrs.; paired by age and gender. Masticatory function description.
TMD (27 subjects) vs. Control (25 subjects).
EMG
CE of habitual chewing
Analysis of ME
[59] Descriptive 135; 18–57 yrs.; both groups in a proportional relation with regard to age and gender. Speech pattern description.
TMD (90 subjects) vs. Control (45 subjects).
EMG
  1. Legend: TMD Temporo-Mandibular Disorder, NSS no signs or symptoms patients, EMG electromyography, VAS visual analogue scale for pain evaluation, PRI pantographic reproducibility index; (−) = does not apply; CE clinical evaluation, ME Masticatory efficiency
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