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Table 11 Advantages and disadvantages of 3d superimposition methods

From: Measurement error and reliability of three available 3D superimposition methods in growing patients

Superimposition methods
FeaturesCMFreg/SlicerDolphinLandmark-derived
Processing TimeUp to 3 h from segmentation to color-coded maps. Cranial base registration itself takes from 5 to 60 minUp to 50 min if numerical assessment and color–coded maps for visual evaluation are required. Cranial base registration itself takes about10 minutes, but it often fails, requiring repetition, which increasing timeUp to 35 min from landmarking to numerical assessment. Approximately 15 min for landmarking only. Numerical assessment requires another 15–20 min
ComplexityHighly complex for a naïve user. Multiple steps and two different software programs are used throughout the processEasy to use but utilizes a volume cube for reference not only stable structures. 3D surfaces visual and quantitative evaluations after registration steps require similar steps to CMFreg/Slicer and need to be followed using Slicer and ITK-Snap software programsEasy to use. Only landmark placement is required
Convenience/AccessOpen-source software programs. 3D Slicer and ITK-SnapLicense requiredLicense required
Visual AssessmentSuperimposition of surface models and color-coded maps for more thorough visual evaluationSuperimposition of surface models and color-coded maps using other software for more thorough visual evaluationNot available
ReliabilityExcellent reliabilityExcellent reliabilityGood reliability
Measurement ErrorLess than 0.7 mmLess than 0.4 mmLess than 1.2 mm when assessed reliability. However, there was a magnified error when compared to the voxel-based methods
AccuracyNo gold standard availableNo gold standard availableNo gold standard available