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Table 1 Descriptive data of the included studies

From: Accuracy of virtual planning in orthognathic surgery: a systematic review

Authors, year and country of origin Type of study Sample size Age: mean, SD (variation) Gender Type of facial deformity
De Rio et al. 2017 Italy [35] Retrospective observational study N: 49 patients Mean: 26.4 years 19 males
30 females
Angle class II: 16
Angle class III: 20
Open bite: 4
Facial asymmetry: 9
Ritto et al. 2017 Brazil [36] Retrospective study N: 30 patients:
CMS group: 15
VSP group: 15
NA CMS group: 8 females
7 males
VSP group: 5 females
10 males
CMS group:
4 skeletal class II malocclusion
11 skeletal class III malocclusion
VSP group: 1 skeletal class I malocclusion,
2 presented class II malocclusion, 12 presented class III malocclusion
Ho et al. 2017 Taiwan [1] Prospective case series, A N: 30 patients Mean: 22.4 years
Range: (18–26 years)
22 females
8 males
Class III malocclusion and facial asymmetry
Chin et al. 2017 Germany [37] A comparative study N: 10 patients Mean: 25.3 years
Range: (18–41) years
4 males
6 females
8 Class III, Prognathism of Mandible
2 Class II retrognathism of Mandible
Stokbro et al. 2016 USA [38] A comparative retrospective study N: 30 patients
CMS group: 15
VSP group: 15
Mean: 23.1 ± 6.8 years
Median: 21 years
Range: (18–42) years
10 males
20 females
NA
Baan et al. 2016 Netherlands [39] Prospective study N: 10 patients Mean: 26.5 years
Range: (17–45) years
4 Males
6 Females
Skeletal Class II profile
Zhang et al. 2016 China [40] A comparative retrospective study N: 30 patients Range: (19–30) years 16 males
14 females
(n = 27) Skeletal class III profile, retrognathia of upper jaw, Prognathia of lower jaw .
(n = 3) Skeletal class II profile prognathia of upper jaw Retrognathia of lower jaw.
De Rio et al. 2014 Italy [41] Randomized controlled clinical trial N: 20 patients
Virtual splint:
10
Classic splint: 10
Virtual splint: Range: (21–54) years
Classic splint: Range: (24–47) years
Overall: 10 M, 10 F
Virtual splint: 3 M, 7 F
Classic splint: 7 M, 3 F
Class II/class III: NA
All asymmetrical
Hsu et al. 2013 USA [6] A Prospective Multicenter Study N: 65 patients
Houston: 41
Portland: 11
New York: 13
Houston: mean 25 range: (15–51)
Portland: mean 26.7 range (15–51)
NewYork: mean 26.7 range (16–46)
Houston 23 M, 18 F
Portland: 3 M, 8 F
New York: 5 M, 8 F
NA
Sun et al. 2013 Belgium [7] Prospective case series N: 15 patients NA NA NA
Zinser et al. 2013 Germany [42] Non-randomized clinical trial N: 28 patients
Virtual splint: 8
Classic splint:
10 Surgical
navigation: 10
Overall: 20.8 ± 4.9 (18–35) years
Virtual splint: 21.6 ± 5.45 (19–35)
Classic splint: 20.6 ± 2.6 (18–26)
Surgical navigation:20.5 ± 4.1(18–32)
Overall: 15 M,
13 F
Virtual splint: 4 M, 4 F
Classic splint: 6 M, 4 F
Surgical navigation:5
M,5 F
Overall: 5 class II, 23 class III
Virtual splint: 8 class III
Classic splint: 4 class II, 6 class III
Surgical navigation: 1 class II, 9 class III
Centenero and Hernández-Alfaro. 2012, Spain [43] Prospective case series N: 16 patients NA NA 9 class II
7 class III
  1. SD standard deviation, NA no information provided by the authors, CMS conventional model surgery, VSP vitual surgical planning, M male, F female
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