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Table 1 Evaluation of distraction accuracy by distances between the reference points of the simulation models and those of experiments (in mm)

From: Fully-customized distraction assembly for maxillofacial distraction osteogenesis: a novel device and its experimental accuracy verification

Reference Pointsb Groups by distraction methoda Kruskal-Wallis test Dunn’s multiple comparisons test
Area Location Group 1 Group 2 Control Group1–2 Group1-C Group2-C
Molar upper 2.78 ± 1.05 2.09 ± 1.19 8.64 ± 2.88 < 0.0001* > 0.9999 0.0006* < 0.0001*
poserior 2.30 ± 0.67 1.99 ± 0.81 7.83 ± 2.38 < 0.0001* > 0.9999 0.0004* < 0.0001*
buccal 2.43 ± 0.78 1.78 ± 1.00 9.56 ± 2.96 < 0.0001* > 0.9999 0.0011* < 0.0001*
anterior 3.03 ± 1.12 2.22 ± 1.06 13.49 ± 3.28 < 0.0001* > 0.9999 0.0007* < 0.0001*
lingual 2.84 ± 1.07 2.39 ± 0.92 11.91 ± 2.71 < 0.0001* > 0.9999 0.0006* < 0.0001*
Subtotal 2.68 ± 0.94 2.09 ± 1.0 10.29 ± 2.84     
Chin upper 4.44 ± 1.83 3.44 ± 1.95 24.48 ± 4.49 < 0.0001* > 0.9999 0.0005* < 0.0001*
posterior 4.18 ± 1.64 3.70 ± 1.57 23.66 ± 4.30 < 0.0001* > 0.9999 0.0003* < 0.0001*
right 4.39 ± 1.69 3.63 ± 2.03 25.78 ± 4.72 < 0.0001* > 0.9999 0.0003* < 0.0001*
anterior 4.86 ± 2.19 4.19 ± 2.11 29.76 ± 5.08 < 0.0001* > 0.9999 0.0002* < 0.0001*
left 4.62 ± 2.07 4.19 ± 1.71 27.51 ± 4.66 < 0.0001* > 0.9999 0.0002* < 0.0001*
inferior 4.57 ± 2.00 4.17 ± 1.80 28.36 ± 4.88 < 0.0001* > 0.9999 0.0001* < 0.0001*
Subtotal 4.51 ± 1.9 3.89 ± 1.86 26.59 ± 4.69     
Total   3.68 ± 1.41 3.07 ± 1.39 19.18 ± 3.73 < 0.0001 > 0.9999 0.0003 < 0.0001
  1. 1) P < 0.05*,
  2. 2) aGroup 1: fully-customized distraction assembly with plate-type positioning guide; Group 2: fully-customized distraction assembly with distractor-type positioning guide; Control group: conventional distractor
  3. 3) bThe location of reference points denote: molar upper for maxillary first molar; molar poserior for mandible second molar; molar buccal for buccal side of first molar; molar anterior for premolar area; molar lingual for lingual side of first molar; chin upper for mandibular incisor; chin posterior for mandibular symphysis; chin right for right parasymphysis;