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Table 2 Characteristic of included studies Prevalence of permanent dental caries

From: Dental caries in primary and permanent teeth in children’s worldwide, 1995 to 2019: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Author, year, Reference Age (years) Country Sample size Prevalence % Quality
Aghighi, 2010, [89] 6–15 Iran 4666 66.3 High
Mortazavi, 1997, [90] 6–9 Iran 220 65.5 High
Asdagh, 2015, [91] 6–12 Iran 847 79.7 Medium
Memar, 1999, [92] 12 Iran 439 84.3 High
Javadi nejad, 2006, [93] 12 Iran 340 82.1 High
Sadeghi, 2007, [94] 12 Iran 563 68.6 High
Yousofi, 2015, [95] 7–12 Iran 460 89.8 High
Eskandarizadeh, 2015, [96] 6–12 Iran 15,369 79.5 High
Mossaheb, 2011, [97] 6–11 Iran 203 82.3 High
Qin, 2019, [98] 10–12 China 5057 39.2 High
Alshehhi, 2019, [99] 8.1 United Arab Emirates 62 58.1 High
Cheng, 2019, [100] 10.3 China 1,196,004 41.1 High
Villanueva-Gutiérrez, 2019, [101] 9 Spain 686 35.4 High
Lešić, 2019, [102] 6–15 Croatia 1589 50.0 High
Mohd Nor, 2019, [103] 12 Malaysia 595 74.3 High
Vanvitelli, 2019, [104] 8–10 Italy 530 29.1 Medium
Obregón-Rodríguez-1, 2019, [105] 12 Spain 1045 25.5 High
Obregón-Rodríguez-2, 2019, [105] 15 Spain 783 26.2 High
Mimoza, 2019, [106] 7–10 Italy 398 28.4 Medium
Abbass, 2019, [66] 6–12 Egypt 369 27.9 High
Aldossary, 2018, [107] 6–9 Saudi Arabia 1844 95.0 High
Goenka, 2018, [67] 8–10 India 353 56.7 High
Ballouk, 2019, [108] 8–12 Syria 1500 79.1 High
Alhabdan, 2018, [109] 6–8 Saudi Arabia 578 82.9 High
Konde, 2018, [110] 12 India 1000 13.6 High
Solis-Riggioni, 2018, [111] 8–15 Costa Rica 201 35.8 High
Musa, 2018, [112] 7–11 China 24,521 32.4 High
Dutra, 2018, [113] 8–12 Brazil 1211 32.4 High
Al-Akwa, 2018, [114] 6–12 Yemen 17,599 67.6 Medium
Cruz, 2018, [115] 11–12 Brazil 184 34.2 High
Andegiorgish, 2017, [116] 12 Eritrea 225 77.8 High
Alwayli, 2017, [117] 6–9 Saudi Arabia 17,891 64.6 High
Dobbiani-1, 2012, [118] 10 Italy 400 44.0 Medium
Dobbiani-2, 2013, [118] 10 Italy 400 18.5 Medium
Maran, 2017, [119] 6–12 India 1204 73.2 High
Shah, 2017, [77] 12–15 India 829 31.4 High
Kim, 2017, [120] 6–11 Korea 514 49.4 High
Sköld, 2016, [121] 13 Sweden 758 2.6 High
Plaka, 2017, [122] 12–15 India 193 36.3 High
Hiremath, 2016, [123] 6–11 India 13,200 78.9 High
Kottayi, 2016, [124] 12–15 India 2000 3.9 Medium
Ponnudurai, 2016, [125] 6–14 India 2796 68.8 High
Djossou, 2013, [126] 6–15 Benin 497 49.7 High
Weusmann, 2015, [127] 8 Germany 25,020 60.9 High
Goel-1, 2015, [128] 12 India 992 34.3 Medium
Goel-2, 2015, [128] 15 India 992 46.5 High
Farooqi, 2014, [129] 6–9 Saudi Arabia 711 73.0 High
Arora, 2014, [130] 12 India 100 57.0 High
Sukhabogi-1, 2014, [131] 12 India 924 39.9 Medium
Sukhabogi-2, 2014, [131] 15- India 951 46.7 Medium
Al-Darwish, 2014, [132] 12–14 Qatar 2113 85.0 High
Aidara, 2014, [133] 12–15 Senegal 677 96.0 High
Ingle, 2014, [134] 12–15 India 1400 53.0 Medium
Sofola, 2000, [135] 6–12 Nigeria 513 16.6 High
Das, 2013, [136] 6–14 West Bengal 1764 28.1 High
Mahfouz-1, 2013, [137] 12 Palestine 677 40.6 High
Mahfouz-2, 2013, [137] 13 Palestine 677 41.8 High
Mahfouz-3, 2013, [137] 14 Palestine 677 60.4 High
Riziwaguli, 2013, [138] 7–9 China 1600 26.5 Medium
Joshi, 2013, [139] 6–12 India 1600 69.1 Medium
Pieper, 2009, [140] 12 Germany 30,943 72.7 High
Yengopal, 2012, [141] 10.5 Africa 882 27.6 High
Murthy, 2014, [142] 12–15 India 1452 57.9 High
Koposova, 2013, [143] 12 Russia 590 68.0 High
Dixit, 2013, [144] 12–13 Nepal 361 41.0 Medium
Suprabha, 2013, [145] 11–13 India 857 59.4 High
Panagidis, 2012, [146] 12 Germany 951 32.6 High
Shailee-1, 2012, [147] 12 India 1011 32.6 Medium
Shailee-2, 2012, [147] 15 India 1011 42.2 High
Lagana, 2012, [148] 7–15 Albanian 2617 88.9 Medium
Subedi, 2011, [148] 12–13 Nepal 325 53.2 Medium
Shekar, 2011, [149] 12–15 India 474 56.3 High
Oulis-1, 2010, [150] 12 Greece 1224 80.0 High
Oulis-2, 2010, [150] 15 Greece 1257 83.0 High
Jamelli, 2010, [151] 12 Brazil 689 71.8 High
Kanagaratnam, 2009, [152] 9 New Zealand 612 54.9 High
Bissar, 2008, [153] 11–14 Germany 570 42.3 High
Ferro, 2007, [154] 12 Italy 260 56.9 High
Moreira, 2006, [155] 12–15 Brazil 1665 50.9 High
Schulte, 2004, [156] 12 Germany 43,950 39.3 High
Paredes, 2005, [157] 6–10 Spain 600 47.2 High
Mestriner, 2005, [158] 12 Brazil 256 53.9 High
Traebert, 2002, [159] 12 Brazil 803 62.1 High