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Table 1 Characteristic of included studies prevalence of tooth decay

From: Dental caries in primary and permanent teeth in children’s worldwide, 1995 to 2019: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Author, year, Reference Age (years) Country Sample size Prevalence % Quality
Kalantari, 2014, [11] 6–7 Iran 400 63.5 High
Abedini, 2013, [12] 2–6 Iran 310 48.7 High
Hematyar, 2009, [13] 3–7 Iran 200 63.5 High
Nabipour, 2013, [14] 3–6 Iran 838 71.8 High
Pahlavani, 2008, [15] 2–6 Iran 414 61.6 High
Amiri, 2017, [16] 4–6 Iran 359 87.7 High
Ajami, 2005, [17] 6–7 Iran 1938 76.5 High
Javadinezhad, 2008, [18] 40.5 Month Iran 100 77.0 High
Karimi, 2012, [19] 2–5 Iran 211 82.9 High
Amanlou, 2011, [20] 3–6 Iran 205 49.3 High
Toutouni, 2015, [21] 2–3 Iran 239 61.1 High
Bagherian, 2013, [22] 2–5 Iran 400 51.3 Medium
Mohebbi, 2006, [23] 1–3 Iran 504 32.9 High
Ramos-Gomez, 1995, [24] <6 USA 220 30.0 High
Rosenblatt, 2002, [25] 1–3 USA 468 28.4 High
Rajab, 2001, [26] 1–5 Jordan 384 47.9 High
Douglass, 1999, [27] 3–4 USA 517 37.9 High
Hallett, 1998, [28] 4–6 Australia 3375 37.6 High
Sayegh, 2002, [29] 4–5 Jordan 1140 67.0 Medium
Hallett, 2003, [30] 4–5 Australia 2474 37.6 High
Peressini, 2000, [31] 3–5 Canada 87 19.5 High
Chadwick, 2005, [32] 2–5 UK 449 24.1 High
Schroth, 2015, [33] <6 Canada 408 53.7 High
Tsai, 1997, [34] <6 Taiwan 951 55.9 Medium
Mahejabeen, 2006, [35] 3–5 India 1500 54.1 Medium
Du, 2002, [36] 3–5 China 2014 55.3 High
Ferro, 2005, [37] 3–5 Italy 4198 25.0 High
Schroth, 2004, [38] 1–5 USA 834 71.0 Medium
Wyne, 2008, [39] 3–5 Saludi Arabia 789 74.8 High
Lawrence, 2004, [40] 1–5 Canada 1275 72.7 High
Vazquez-Nava, 2005, [41] 4–5 Mexico 1160 17.9 High
Jigjid, 2005, [42] 1–5 Japan 670 71.9 High
Senesombath, 2010, [43] 36–47 Month Thailand 400 82.0 Medium
Slabsinskiene, 2003, [44] 3 Lithuania 950 50.6 High
Zhou, 2010, [45] 32 Month China 155 28.4 High
Rajshekar, 2005, [46] 1–6 India 500 43.4 Medium
Ozer, 2011, [47] 3–6 Turkey 226 49.6 High
Li, 2011, [48] 36–70 Month China 1523 56.8 High
Kumarihamy, 2011, [49] 1–2 Sri Lanka 410 32.2 High
Prakash, 2012, [50] 8–48 Month India 1500 27.5 Medium
Singh, 2012, [51] 36–60 Month India 717 40.0 High
Perera, 2010, [52] 24–71 Month Sri Lanka 410 32.2 Medium
Phipps, 2011, [53] 12–71 Month India 8461 62.3 High
Parisotto, 2012, [54] 36–59 Month Brazil 351 39.9 High
Zhang, 2012, [55] 5 China 723 84.9 High
Tanaka, 2007, [56] 3 Japan 2055 20.7 Medium
Colombo, 2019, [57] 48–71 Month Italy 2522 38.0 Medium
Agouropoulos-1, 2019, [58] <7 USA 175 92.6 High
Agouropoulos-2, 2019, [58] <7 USA 175 53.7 High
Agouropoulos-3, 2019, [58] <7 USA 175 36.0 High
Musinguzi, 2019, [59] 3–5 Kenya 432 48.1 High
Montes, 2019, [60] 5–7 Brazil 415 42.9 Medium
Boustedt, 2019, [61] 5 Sweden 336 13.1 High
Tonpe-1, 2019, [62] 3–5 India 358 2.8 High
Tonpe-2, 2019, [62] 3–5 India 358 4.2 High
Wang, 2019, [63] 6 China 4936 87.7 High
Nomura, 2019, [64] 5–6 Myanmar 187 81.3 Medium
Wu, 2019, [65] 5–6 China 1350 51.4 High
Abbass, 2019, [66] 5–6 Egypt 369 4.3 Medium
Goenka, 2018, [67] 5–7 India 312 65.1 High
Chugh, 2018, [68] 24–61 Month India 425 47.3 High
Vandana, 2018, [69] 2–6 India 550 38.2 High
Igic, 2018, [70] 3–6 Serbia 250 38.4 High
Kato, 2017, [71] 3 Japan 6315 36.0 High
Li, 2017, [72] 3–5 China 1727 78.2 High
Mangla, 2017, [73] 1–3 India 510 21.0 High
Owen, 2017, [74] 3–5 Australia 623 14.1 High
Pal, 2017, [75] 5–6 India 408 46.6 High
Wagne, 2017, [76] 6.7 Germany 512 1.8 High
Shah, 2017, [77] 5–7 India 829 33.2 Medium
Yuan, 2017, [78] 3 China 959 28.1 High
Jiang, 2017, [79] 2–5 China 1509 71.4 High
Massignan, 2016, [80] 3.7 Brazil 565 39.1 High
Koya, 2016, [81] 24–71 Month India 1897 42.0 High
Mothupi, 2016, [82] 4.8 Africa 495 48.9 High
Alkhtib, 2016, [83] 4–5 Qatari 250 89.2 High
Henry, 2016, [84] <3 India 1486 40.6 High
Šačić, 2016, [85] 3–5 Bosnia and Herzegovina 165 17.0 Medium
Al-Meedani, 2016, [86] 3–5 Saludi Arabia 388 69.1 High
Elidrissi, 2016, [87] 3–5 Sudan 553 52.4 Medium
Gopal, 2016, [88] 3–6 India 477 27.3 High