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Table 2 Bivariate analysis of factors associated with depression, anxiety and stress

From: Prevalence of temporomandibular joint disorder in the Lebanese population, and its association with depression, anxiety, and stress

Variable Depression Anxiety Stress
Gender
 Male 5.92 ± 4.17 5.10 ± 3.49 10.24 ± 8.44
 Female 6.97 ± 4.75 6.32 ± 4.34 12.41 ± 10.11
p 0.035 0.007 0.042
Governorate
 Beirut 6.23 ± 4.43 6.67 ± 3.29 9.53 ± 9.54
 Mount Lebanon 6.81 ± 4.60 6.06 ± 4.28 12.42 ± 9.76
 North 6.26 ± 5.12 5.40 ± 4.07 11.14 ± 9.68
 South 6.67 ± 4.91 6.11 ± 4.39 11.52 ± 8.70
 Bekaa 6.03 ± 3.69 4.87 ± 3.36 10.49 ± 8.88
p 0.729 0.065 0.243
Education level
 Illiterate/primary/ complementary 4.22 ± 3.93 4.39 ± 3.96 8.17 ± 8.31
 Secondary 6.80 ± 4.81 5.91 ± 4.24 12.97 ± 10.26
 University 6.47 ± 4.32 5.73 ± 3.91 10.44 ± 8.72
p 0.074 0.330 0.018
Monthly income
 < 1000 USD 6.47 ± 4.42 5.23 ± 3.48 11.16 ± 8.68
 1000–2000 USD 6.38 ± 4.36 5.81 ± 4.10 10.52 ± 9.19
 > 2000 USD 5.83 ± 4.26 5.13 ± 3.30 10.19 ± 8.21
p 0.617 0.510 0.684
Sleep apnea
 No 6.35 ± 4.27 5.59 ± 3.75 10.98 ± 8.90
 Yes 7.97 ± 5.40 7.36 ± 5.07 14.65 ± 11.57
p 0.036 0.014 0.027
Cigarette smoking
 No 6.43 ± 4.44 5.73 ± 4.02 11.12 ± 9.01
 Yes 7.09 ± 4.88 6.09 ± 4.18 13.43 ± 11.23
p 0.364 0.667 0.264
Waterpipe smoking
 No 6.49 ± 4.56 5.79 ± 4.04 11.22 ± 9.22
 Yes 6.73 ± 4.25 5.76 ± 4.04 12.82 ± 10.29
p 0.503 0.931 0.278
Bruxism at night
 No 6.12 ± 4.34 5.53 ± 3.85 10.71 ± 8.81
 Yes 7.91 ± 4.43 6.62 ± 4.08 14.09 ± 10.53
p 0.001 0.051 0.008
Dental gutter
 No 6.36 ± 4.53 5.75 ± 4.06 11.02 ± 9.31
 Yes 7.75 ± 4.33 6.17 ± 3.84 14.18 ± 9.60
p 0.012 0.275 0.017
Presence of TMJ
 No 6.21 ± 4.41 5.50 ± 3.95 10.82 ± 9.04
 Yes 7.77 ± 4.69 6.91 ± 4.19 13.88 ± 10.47
p 0.005 0.01 0.015
Kind of work
 Desk 7.43 ± 5.03 6.55 ± 4.42 13.04 ± 10.60
 Standing 6.00 ± 4.24 5.61 ± 4.10 11.05 ± 8.66
 Computer 5.97 ± 4.35 5.23 ± 3.39 9.33 ± 8.87
p 0.042 0.08 0.036
  1. Numbers in bold indicate significant p-values based on the corrected p ≤ 0.002.