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Table 1 Retraction guidelines and definitions adopted from the Glossary of retractions [11], Committee on Publication Ethics [12], and International Committee of Medical Journal Editors [13]

From: From honest mistakes to fake news – approaches to correcting the scientific literature

GroupActionDefinition
  Requesting concerns to
  -Institutions of authors
EditorsCorrespondence-Institutions of co-authors
  -Person responsible for research governance
  -Regulatory body
Editors, authors, readersLettersPublished letter to the editor
EditorsEditor’s noteA minor point issued by the editor.
EditorsEditor’s warningAn issued statement by journal editors eliciting concern over the validity of a given paper or study.
EditorsExpression of concernA statement issued by the editor to question the validity of a paper or portions of that paper.
Editors, authorsErrataPublished corrections
Editors, authorsPartial retractionRetraction of a portion of a paper
AuthorsRetractionFormal withdrawal of one or more papers by one or all of the authors
Authors, editorsRetraction with republicationReplacement in case where a honest error (e.g. miscalculation) leads to a major change of the results of the original paper
Editors, institutions, fundersRetraction without permissionThe formal withdrawal of one or more papers by a journal editor, the institution where the study took place, one or more of the papers authors, or funders.