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Table 2 Means (±SD) of color changes (∆E) at various time intervals for 3 aligners brands, 5 staining agents and 2 cleansers

From: Colorimetric and spectrophotometric measurements of orthodontic thermoplastic aligners exposed to various staining sources and cleaning methods

BrandStaining agentCleanser∆E (T1-T0) IC∆E (T2-T0) IC∆E (T3-T1)IC∆E (T3-T2)IC∆E (T3-T0)
12 h group
IC∆E (T3-T0)
7d group
IC
INVCoffeeCrystals7.12 (±2.27) a27.76 (±4.99) a1.51 (±0.38)a1.72 (±1.23)a6.29 (±2.35)a29.83 (±2.50)a
RB1.41 (±0.59)1.47 (±0.57)5.48 (±2.77)22.94 (±3.20)
ColaCrystals0.92 (±0.34) a0.74 (±0.27) a0.80 (±0.23)a0.82 (±0.37)a1.22 (±0.28)b0.69 (±0.59)a
RB0.35 (±0.09)0.51 (±0.20)1.01 (±0.22)0.75 (±0.18)
SalivaCrystals0.90 (±0.27) ab1.06 (±0.18) b0.41 (±0.20)a0.45 (±0.28)a1.05 (±0.43)ab1.33 (±0.31)a
RB0.53 (±0.21)0.52 (±0.16)1.11 (±0.38)1.44 (±0.27)
TeaCrystals1.56 (±0.65) a23.01 (±3.24) a1.27 (±0.49)a22.07 (±4.28)a0.95 (±0.26)b3.15 (±1.33)a
RB1.15 (±0.41)17.14 (±2.19)1.27 (±0.42)4.86 (±1.12)
WineCrystals5.66 (±0.43) a15.75 (±2.99) a0.61 (±0.35)n/a1.71 (±0.87)b5.00 (±0.47)a15.84 (±2.25)a
RB2.00 (±0.90)1.22 (±0.70)4.02 (±1.09)13.20 (±2.65)
CCCoffeeCrystals0.98 (±0.25) b1.97 (±0.67) b1.26 (±0.40)a1.81 (±0.33)a1.20 (±0.32)b1.08 (±0.42)b
RB1.25 (±0.28)2.02 (±0.88)1.13 (±0.59)0.98 (±0.18)
ColaCrystals0.88 (±0.32) a0.87 (±0.26) a0.89 (±0.37)a0.61 (±0.37)a0.97 (±0.59)b1.13 (±0.41)a
RB0.84 (±0.25)0.41 (±0.17)1.31 (±0.18)0.92 (±0.40)
SalivaCrystals1.20 (±0.51) a1.33 (±0.57) b0.67 (±0.30)a0.71 (±0.21)a1.17 (±0.45)a0.99 (±0.51)ab
RB0.47 (±0.43)0.71 (±0.49)1.15 (±0.49)1.28 (±0.54)
TeaCrystals0.85 (±0.29) b19.28 (±3.51) a0.99 (±0.23)a18.87 (±2.45)a0.49 (±0.15)a1.39 (±0.62)b
RB1.01 (±0.18)15.71 (±4.49)0.31 (±0.38)2.91 (±0.38)
WineCrystals1.47 (±0.25) b1.22 (±0.47) b2.03 (±0.43)n/a1.40 (±0.68)ab1.26 (±0.32)b1.23 (±0.40)b
RB1.90 (±0.20)1.13 (±0.48)1.18 (±0.25)0.97 (±0.68)
MTMCoffeeCrystals0.91 (±0.32) b1.45 (±0.42) b1.32 (±0.39)a1.78 (±0.41)a0.55 (±0.15)c0.61 (±0.18)c
RB1.12 (±0.30)1.01 (±0.38)0.79 (±0.32)0.85 (±0.30)
ColaCrystals0.65 (±0.33) a0.78 (±0.21) a0.59 (±0.29)a0.52 (±0.09)a0.54 (±0.24)a0.86 (±0.18)a
RB0.72 (±0.26)0.66 (±0.14)0.94 (±0.28)0.89 (±0.30)
SalivaCrystals0.63 (±0.29) b0.66 (±0.23) a0.58 (±0.11)a0.68 (±0.29)a0.68 (±0.18)b0.96 (±0.32)b
RB0.55 (±0.13)0.66 (±0.08)0.75 (±0.31)0.70 (±0.19)
TeaCrystals1.03 (±0.36) b21.21 (±2.98) a1.37 (±0.41)a21.02 (±2.01)a0.81 (±0.50)b0.73 (±0.26)b
RB0.86 (±0.38)19.16 (±3.62)0.77 (±0.24)2.14 (±1.33)
WineCrystals0.90 (±0.26) c0.81 (±0.42) b0.97 (±0.27)n/a0.69 (±0.09)a0.87 (±0.27)c0.90 (±0.29)b
RB1.39 (±0.20)0.66 (±0.40)0.79 (±0.30)0.86 (±0.33)
  1. SD standard deviation, CC ClearCorrect, INV Invisalign, MTM Minor Tooth Movement, RB Retainer Brite, IC Intergroup comparison. Intergroup comparison of color differences among the various aligner types according to the Tukey’s multiple comparison test. Non-identical letters (a, b and c) indicate a statistically significant difference between aligner types in each solution at each time point (P < 0.05). n/a was used as the t-test demonstrated a different effect among the two cleansers as described in the results section