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Table 2 Soft tissue facial landmarks used in the study

From: Ontogeny of the facial phenotypic variability in Mexican patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

NoLandmarksDefinition
Sagittal Line
 1GnationThe lowest point in the midline on the lower border of the chin.
 2Labiale inferiusThe midpoint of the vermilion border of the lower lip.
 3StomionThe midpoint of the labial fissure when the lips are closed naturally.
 4Labiale superiusThe midpoint of the vermilion border of the upper lip.
 9SubnasaleThe junction between the lower borders of the nasal septum.
 12TrichionMidpoint of the hairline.
Bilateral
 5,8Crista PhiltreThe point of the crest of the philtrum, above the vermilion border.
 6,7ChelionThe outer corner of the mouth where the upper and lower lips meet.
 10,11Alare crestThe most lateral point on the nasal ala.
 13,17EndocanthionThe inner corner of the eye fissure where the eyelids meet.
 14,18ExocanthionThe outer corner of the eye fissure where the eyelids meet.
 15,19Palpebral superiusThe highest point on the upper margin of the middle portion of the eyelid.
 16,20Palpebral inferiusThe lowest point on the upper margin of the middle portion of the eyelid.
 21,22Photographic zygionThe most external point on the margin of the face below the eyes.
 23,24Photographic gonionThe most outward projecting point on the face along the horizontal axis of the mouth.
 25,27SuperauraleThe highest point on the upper edge of the helix of the ear.
 26,28SubauraleThe lowest point on the lobe of the ear.