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Table 2 Soft tissue facial landmarks used in the study

From: Ontogeny of the facial phenotypic variability in Mexican patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

No Landmarks Definition
Sagittal Line
 1 Gnation The lowest point in the midline on the lower border of the chin.
 2 Labiale inferius The midpoint of the vermilion border of the lower lip.
 3 Stomion The midpoint of the labial fissure when the lips are closed naturally.
 4 Labiale superius The midpoint of the vermilion border of the upper lip.
 9 Subnasale The junction between the lower borders of the nasal septum.
 12 Trichion Midpoint of the hairline.
Bilateral
 5,8 Crista Philtre The point of the crest of the philtrum, above the vermilion border.
 6,7 Chelion The outer corner of the mouth where the upper and lower lips meet.
 10,11 Alare crest The most lateral point on the nasal ala.
 13,17 Endocanthion The inner corner of the eye fissure where the eyelids meet.
 14,18 Exocanthion The outer corner of the eye fissure where the eyelids meet.
 15,19 Palpebral superius The highest point on the upper margin of the middle portion of the eyelid.
 16,20 Palpebral inferius The lowest point on the upper margin of the middle portion of the eyelid.
 21,22 Photographic zygion The most external point on the margin of the face below the eyes.
 23,24 Photographic gonion The most outward projecting point on the face along the horizontal axis of the mouth.
 25,27 Superaurale The highest point on the upper edge of the helix of the ear.
 26,28 Subaurale The lowest point on the lobe of the ear.