Skip to main content

Table 1 Demographics, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of the A-EF, SFIF, PMMF, and TIMF for reconstructing through-and-through cheek defects involving the labial commissure following cheek cancer ablation in 35 patients with buccal squamous cell carcinoma

From: Comparison of the reconstruction of through-and-through cheek defects involving the labial commissure following tumor resection using four types of local and pedicle flaps

  A-EF (n = 5) No. of patients (%) SFIF (n = 8) No. of patients (%) PMMF (n = 9) No. of patients (%) TIMF (n = 13) No. of patients (%) P-value
Sex
 Male 3 (80.0) 5 (62.6) 6 (66.7) 7 (53.8) 0.887a
 Female 2 (20.0) 3 (37.4) 3 (33.3) 6 (46.2)  
Age, years (mean ± SD) 52.0 ± 8.5 64.3 ± 9.2 59.6 ± 8.2 59.8 ± 12.7 0.863a
Clinical stage
 I 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0.026b
 II 5 (100.0) 3 (22.5) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)  
 III + rCS III 0 (0.0) 5 (42.5) 5 + 1 (66.7) 1 + 6 (53.8)  
 IV + rCS IV 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 2 + 1 (33.3) 4 + 2 (46.2)  
Treatment
 TR 5 (100.0) 7 (87.5) 3 (33.3) 0 (0.0) 0.036b
 TR + PM + MM 0 (0.0) 1 (12.5) 5 (55.6) 8 (61.5)  
 TR + Man+Max 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (11.1) 5 (38.5)  
Flap (cm)
 Inner dimensions
  Range, median 1 × 2 to 2 × 3, 1.8 × 2.2 5 × 3 to 7 × 5, 5.5 × 4.3 6 × 4 to 7 × 5, 6.3 × 4.5 6 × 6 to 15 × 8, 9.8 × 6.7 0.041b
 Outer dimensions
  Range, median 2 × 2 to 3 × 5, 1.8 × 3.8 5 × 4 to 7 × 8, 5.5 × 4.6 6 × 6 to 7 × 6, 6.3 × 6.6 6 × 8 to 15 × 20, 9.8 × 13.2 0.033b
 Successful (no.) 5 (100.0) 7 (87.5) 9(100.0) 13 (100.0) 0.967a
 Local complications
  Hemorrhage 1 (20.0) 1 (12.5) 0 (0.0) 1 (7.7) 0.554c
  Orocutaneous fistula 0 (0.0) 1 (12.5) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)  
  Dehiscence in donor-site 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (11.1) 2 (15.4)  
 Esthetic results
  1 0 (0.0) 1 (12.5) 1 (11.1) 4 (30.8) 0.039c
  2 1 (20.0) 2 (25.0) 6 (66.7) 7 (53.8)  
  3 4 (80.0) 5 (62.5) 2 (22.2) 2 (15.4)  
 Orbicularis oris function
  1 0 (0.0) 1 (12.5) 2 (22.2) 4 (30.8) 0.042c
  2 0 (0.0) 1 (12.5) 4 (44.5) 6 (46.2)  
  3 5 (100.0) 6 (75.0) 3 (33.3) 3 (23.0)  
 Speech function
  1 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 2 (22.2) 5 (38.4) 0.046c
  2 0 (0.0) 2 (25.0) 3 (33.3) 6 (46.2)  
  3 5 (100.0) 6 (75.0) 4 (44.5.) 2 (15.4)  
 Follow-up range, median (months) 6–38, 26.8 6–36, 25.0 6–32, 22.1 6–33, 20.8 0.829a
 Status (months)
  AND 4 (80.0) 7 (87.5) 5 (55.6) 5 (38.4) 0.039b
  AWD 1 (20.0) 1 (12.5) 2 (22.2) 4 (30.8)  
  DOD 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 2 (22.2) 4 (30.8)  
  1. Abbreviations: A-EF Abbe–Estlander flap, SFIF folded extended supraclavicular fasciocutaneous island flap, PMMF pectoralis major muscle flap, TIMF folded extended vertical lower trapezius island myocutaneous flap, rCS clinical staging of recurrence, TR tumor resection, Man mandibulotomy, Max maxillotomy, PM + MM partial maxillotomy plus marginal mandibulotomy, AND alive with no disease, AWD alive with disease, DOD died of disease
  2. a All groups were compared
  3. b The A-EF and SFIF groups were compared with the PMMF and TIMF groups
  4. c The A-EF group was compared with the SFIF, PMMF and TIMF groups