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Table 3 Details of included articles

From: Facial soft tissue changes after nonsurgical rapid maxillary expansion: a systematic review and meta-analysis

No. Author& Year Design Groups Size Males/Females Average Age(year) Appliance Expansion duration Retention duration Measurement methods Measurement time
1 Badreddine 2017 [30] retro- spective study 20 10/10 8.9 ± 2.16 hyrax expander 3 months CT images T0,T1
control 10 5/5 9.2 ± 2.17
2 Altındis¸ 2016 [23] RCT banded RME 14 6/8 12.7 ± 0.6 Hyrax screw 3 months 3-D image T0,T2
bonded RME 14 7/7 12.4 ± 0.8
Modified bonded RME 14 5/9 12.5 ± 0.8
3 Baysal 2016 [14] RCT treated 17 9/8 13.4 ± 1.2 bonded acrylic splint expander 6 months poteroanterior cephalogram and 3-D image T0,T2
untreated 17 9/8 12.8 ± 1.3
4 Torun 2016 [35] retro- spective prepubertal 14 10/18 13.91 ± 1.8 Hyrax screw 3–4 weeks 6 months CBCT and 3-D image T0,T2
postpubertal 14
5 Halıcıoğlu 2016 [31] RCT memory-screw 17 9/8 13 ± 1.29 memory- screw 7.76 ± 1.04 days 6.42 ± 0.59 months lateral cephalograms T0,T1,T2
Hyrax-screw 15 8/7 12.58 ± 1.5 Hyrax- screw 35.46 ± 9.39 days 6.17 ± 0.32 months
6 Uysal 2015 [36] CCT study 20 8/12 13.4 ± 0.99 acrylic bonded RME appliance average 1.1 months 6 months lateral and anteroposterior radiographs T0,T1,T2
control 16 6/10 13.25 ± 1.19
7 Longo 2014 [34] cohort study 28 14/14 12 years 2 months ±3.1 years banded Hyrax(24 subjects), banded Haas(3), bonded Hyrax(1) direct measurement with caliper T0,T1
8 Santariello 2014 [37] CCT study 61 35/26 10.5 ± 1.8 Hyrax type expander 3–4 weeks nearly 6 months direct measurement with caliper T0,T1,T2
control 41 15/26 10.7 ± 2.2
9 Pangrazio-Kulbersh 2012 [9] RCT banded maxillary expanders 13 7/6 12.6 ± 1.8 banded maxillary expanders 4–6 weeks 6 months CBCT and 3-D image T0,T2
bonded maxillary expanders 10 5/5 13.5 ± 2.1 bonded maxillary expanders
10 Santos 2012 [22] cohort study 20 10/10 9.3 years ± 10 months modified acrylic Hyrax device 3–4 weeks 6 months lateral cephalograms T0,T1,T2
11 Johnson 2010 [10] CCT prepubertal 31 12/19 13.1 Hyrax- type expander average 35 days average 5.7 months direct measurement with caliper T0,T1,T2
postpubertal 48 17/31
12 Kilic 2008 [15] cohort study 18 3/15 13.5 ± 1.07 rigid acrylic bonded appliance 5.95 ± 0.35 months lateral cephalograms T0,T1,T2
13 Karaman 2002 [38] cohort study 20 10/10 12.8 modified acrylic bonded appliance 5.2 weeks lateral cephalograms T0,T1
14a Altorkat 2016 [20] cohort study 14 7/7 12.6 ± 1.8 Hyrax screw 3D stereophoto-grammetry T0,T1
15a Kim 2012 [24] cohort study 23 10/13 12.3 ± 2.6 fixed rapid maxillary expander average 22.8 days CBCT T0,T1
  1. aArticles included in the systematic review but not in the meta-analysis. T0 = pre-expansion, T1 = postexpansion, T2 = postretention