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Table 6 Optical biopsy

From: Current concepts and future of noninvasive procedures for diagnosing oral squamous cell carcinoma - a systematic review

Optical biopsy Technology Light source Information provided Sensitivity % Specificity %
Auto-fluorescence spectroscopy Fluorochromes fluorescence (NAD, FADH) ultraviolet and visible spectrum light Distinguish malignant tissue by concentration of (NAD, FADH), re-emit green light 81 100
Enhanced dye fluorescence Fluorochromes fluorescence (protoporphyrin IX) ultraviolet and visible spectrum light Distinguish malignant tissue by high concentration of (protoporphyrin IX), re-emit red light 100 100
Ratio imaging fluorescence (protoporphyrin IX, NAD, FADH) ultraviolet and visible blue light Compare a ratio of red emission of (protoporphyrin IX) from malignant cells with the green emission from normal from 60 to 97 from 75 to 99%
Raman spectroscopy Raman vibrational spectroscopy laser-based spectroscopic technique enabling chemical characterization 80.5 86.2
Elastic scattering spectroscopy Elastic scattering (white light reflectance) pulsed xenon arc lamp provides optical geometrical information 92 79
Differential path-length spectroscopy Elastic scattering (white light reflectance) tungsten-halogen lamp cell biochemistry, intracellular morphology and microvascular properties such as oxygen saturation and average vessel diameter 69 85
Optical Coherence Tomography scattered light (Fourier domain mode lock swept source-based) OCT laser-based Provide provide high-speed three-dimensional OCT pictures Subjective image required interpretation Subjective image required interpretation
Angle-resolved low coherence interferometry (A/LCI) scattered light to measure the average size of different cell structures laser-based delivers direct confirmation of precancerous disease to the physician 100 85