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Table 3 Genomic substance

From: Current concepts and future of noninvasive procedures for diagnosing oral squamous cell carcinoma - a systematic review

Genome Functions Type of abnormality Reported rate in the saliva
Mitochondrial DNA   mutations 67%
p53 gene: Tumor-suppressor genes Cell-cycle regulation Senescence, cell-cycle progression mutations 71%
p16* : Tumor-suppressor genes Cell-cycle regulation Senescence, cell-cycle progression Hypermethylation 47%
DAP-K* kinase whose expression is required for IFN-γ-induced apoptosis Hypermethylation 33%
MGMT*   Hypermethylation 23%
CDKN2A Control of cell cycle, arrest cell cycle at G1& G2act like a Tumor-suppressor genes Hypermethylation 30.2%
CDH1 Encodes Ca++ dependent cell to cell adhesions Hypermethylation -
c-MYCIN: Proto-oncogenes Cell growth, apoptosis amplification 20-40%
Cyclin D oncogenes: Proto-oncogenes Cell-cycle regulation amplification 87%
  1. *p16, MGMT,DAP-K (methylation of at least one of these genes in 65%).