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Table 2 Analysis of studies addressing key questions 1, 2, 3 or 4 that met the inclusion criteria

From: Current concepts and future of noninvasive procedures for diagnosing oral squamous cell carcinoma - a systematic review

Study Study or biopsy type(s) Quality score Type of study Care setting Country conducted in Funded by Number of patients enrolled
Epstein et al. 1997 [10] Toluidine blue 7 Prospective Department of Dentistry, British Columbia Cancer Agency Canada British Columbia Cancer Agency -
Bouquot et al. 1986 [11] Toluidine blue 6.5 Prospective - USA - 23,616
Martin et al. 1998 [23] Toluidine blue 6.3 - Department of Oral and Facial Surgery, Sunderland Royal Hospital UK - -
Scheifele et al. 2004 [24] OralCDx® technique 6.4 Prospective Department of Oral Surgery and Dental Radiology, Zentrum für Zahnmedizin, Campus Virchow, Charité--Universitätsmedizin Berlin Germany - 103
Sciubba 1999 [26] OralCDx® technique 7.3 Prospective Department of Dental Medicine, Long Island Jewish Medical Center USA U.S. Collaborative OralCDx® Study Group 945
Gupta et al. 2007 [26] Oral brush biopsy 5.8 Prospective Department of Pathology, Moti Lal Nehru Medical College, Allahabad University India - 96
Poate et al. 2004 [28] Oral brush biopsy 7.5 Prospective Oral Medicine, Division of Maxillofacial Diagnostic, Medical and Surgical Sciences, Eastman Dental Institute for Oral Health Care Sciences UK - 112
Weigum et al. 2010 [29] Nanobiochip, exfoliative cytology 7.7 Prospective Department of Dental Diagnostic Science, University of Texas Health Science Center USA National Institute for Dental and
Craniofacial Research
52
Jokerst et al. 2010 [31] Nanobiochip 6.6 Prospective Stanford University School of Medicine USA - -
Wei et al. 2009 [32] Saliva biomarkers 7.5 Prospective University of California, Los Angeles School of Dentistry and Dental Research Institute USA NIH/National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research -
Floriano et al. 2009 [33] Saliva-based nanobiochip tests 7.6 Prospective Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas USA National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research 41
Liu et al. 2009 [34] Saliva biomarkers 7.5 Prospective Department of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics, USA University of Pennsylvania Institute for Translational Medicine and Therapeutics -
Zimmermann et al. 2007 [36] Saliva biomarkers 7.8 Prospective School of Dentistry and Dental Research Institute, University of California USA National Institute of Health -
Xie et al. 2008 [37] Saliva biomarkers 7 Prospective Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and Biophysics, School of Dentistry, University of Minnesota USA - -
Sugimoto et al. 2010 [39] Saliva biomarkers 8 Prospective UCLA Medical Center USA National Institute of Health 215
Hu et al. 2008 [41] Saliva biomarkers 7.6 Prospective Oral Biology and Medicine Division and Dental Research Institute, School of Dentistry, University of California USA U.S. Public Health Service 64
Rosin et al. 2000 [44] Biomarkers; genetic 7.7 Prospective British Columbia Cancer Agency/Cancer Research Centre Canada National Cancer Institute of Canada, Canadian Cancer Society 116
Boyle et al. 1993 [48] Biomarkers; genetic 7.6 Prospective Department of Oral Surgery, Johns Hopkins University USA - 102
Rosas et al. 2001 [50] Biomarkers; genetic 7.9 Prospective Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine USA National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIH) 30
Chien et al. 1990 [52] Biomarkers; genetic 7.5 Prospective Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, First Affiliated Hospital, Human Medical University China - 92
Handschel et al. 2007 [54] Biomarkers; genetic 6.9 Prospective Department for Cranio- and Maxillofacial Surgery, Heinrich-Heine-University Germany - -
Hasselmann et al. 2001 [55] Saliva biomarkers; clinical chemistry 6.4 Prospective Department of Dermatology, Saarland University Hospital Germany - -
Ratajczak et al. 2006 [56] Biomarkers; cellular 7.2 Prospective James Graham Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville USA Stem Cell Biology Program -
García et al. 2008 [57] Biomarkers; genetic 7.5 Prospective Department of Medical Oncology, Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro Spain Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia and the Fundación de Investigación Médica Mutua Madrileña -
Skog et al. 2008 [59] Biomarkers; genetic 7.5 Prospective Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, and Neuroscience Program, Harvard Medical School USA Wenner-Gren Foundation Stiftelsen Olle Engkvist Byggmästare, Brain Tumor Society, and American Brain Tumor Association -
Shpitzer et al. 2009 [63] Saliva biomarkers 7.8 Prospective Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Rabin Medical Center, Petah Tiqva and Sackler Faculty of Medicine - - 19
Vairaktaris et al. 2008 [64] Saliva biomarkers 7.5 Prospective Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Athens Medical School, Attikon Hospital Greece - 152
St John et al. 2004 [64] Saliva biomarkers 7.7 Prospective School of Medicine, UCLA USA National Institutes of Health, UCLA Jonsson Cancer Center 32
Rhodus et al. 2005 [66] Saliva biomarkers 7.6 Prospective Department of Oral Medicine, University of Minnesota USA - 13
Arellano-Garcia et al. 2008 [67] Saliva biomarkers 7.5 Prospective School of Dentistry, Oral Biology and Medicine Division, Dental Research Institute, University of California USA U.S. Public Health Service 19
Betz et al. 2002 [111] Optical biopsy 7.9 Prospective Department of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, Ludwig Maximilians University Germany Wilhelm Sander Foundation 85
Leunig et al. 2000 [112] Optical biopsy 7.5 Prospective Department of Otorhinolaryngology--Head and Neck Surgery, University of Munich Germany Wilhelm Sander Foundation 8
Betz et al. 1999 [101] Optical biopsy 7.7 Prospective Department of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology/Head & Neck Surgery, Ludwig Maximilian University Germany Wilhelm Sander Foundation 49
Kulbersh et al. 2007 [103] Optical biopsy 7.5 Prospective Department of Surgery, Division of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Alabama USA American Cancer Society, University of Alabama at Birmingham Comprehensive Cancer Center Core Grant NIH 33 Models
Ebenezar et al. 2012 [113] Optical biopsy 7.3 Prospective Anna University, Department of Medical Physics India - 25
Duraipandian et al. 2012 [118] Optical biopsy 7.8 Prospective National University of Singapore, Department of Bioengineering, Faculty of Engineering, Optical Bioimaging Laboratory Singapore National University of Singapore 2748
Guze et al. 2014 [133] Optical biopsy 7.8 Prospective Department of Oral Medicine, Infection and Immunity, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Divisions of Oral Medicine, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women’s Hospital USA - 18
Krishnakumar et al. 2013 [125] Optical biopsy 7.5 Prospective Department of Physics, Annamalai University India - -
Sahu et al. 2013 [126] Optical biopsy 7 - Chilakapati lab, ACTREC, Tata Memorial Centre India Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer 70
Singh et al. 2013 [128] Optical biopsy 7.3 Prospective Chilakapati lab, ACTREC, Tata Memorial Centre India Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer 84
Singh et al. 2012 [127] Optical biopsy 7.5 Prospective Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer, Chilakapati Laboratory India Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer 104 subjects
Deshmukh et al. 2011 [129] Optical biopsy 7 Prospective Chilakapati Laboratory India Advanced Center for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer 10
Oliveira et al. 2006 [130] Optical biopsy 7.2 Prospective Grupo de Optica Biomédica, Instituto de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento, Universidade do Vale do Paraíba Brazil - 123 spectra
Malini et al. 2006 [131] Optical biopsy 7.5 Prospective Center for Laser Spectroscopy, Manipal Academy of Higher Education India Government of India 216 spectra
Krishna et al. 2004 [132] Optical biopsy 6.8 Prospective Center for Laser Spectroscopy, Manipal Academy of Higher Education India Government of India -
Jerjes et al. 2004 [135] Optical biopsy 7.5 Prospective Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University College London Hospitals UK Eastman Dental Institute, UCL, UCLH Head and Neck Centre 13
Sharwani et al. 2006 [140] Optical biopsy 7.6 Prospective Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Eastman Dental Institute UK Eastman Dental Institute, UCL, UCLH Head and Neck Centre, London, UK 25
Mourant et al. 2000 [137] Optical biopsy 7 Prospective Los Alamos National Laboratory, Bioscience Division USA - -
Mourant et al. 1998 [138] Optical biopsy 7.2 Prospective Chemical Sciences and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory USA - -
Lovat et al. 2006 [139] Optical biopsy 7.8 Prospective National Medical Laser Centre, Department of Surgery, Royal Free and University College Medical School, University College UK National Cancer Institute 181
A’Amar et al. 2013 [144] Optical biopsy 7.5 Prospective Department of Biomedical Engineering, Boston University USA - 42
Denkçeken et al. 2013 [145] Optical biopsy 6.9 Prospective Biomedical Optics Research Unit, Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, Akdeniz University Turkey Biomedical Optics Research Unit 10
Qi et al. 2012 [143] Optical biopsy 7.7 Prospective Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London UK ERC grant (China Scholarship Council) -
Upile et al. 2012 [142] Optical biopsy 7.8 Prospective Head & Neck Unit, University College London Hospitals UK Eastman Dental Institute, UCL, UCLH Head and Neck Centre 73
Canpolat et al. 2012 [141] Optical biopsy 7.6 Prospective Department of Biophysics, School of Medicine, Akdeniz University Turkey - 28
Lau et al. 2009 [146] Optical biopsy 7.9 Prospective Massachusetts Institute of Technology, George R. Harrison Spectroscopy Laboratory USA National Institutes of Health -
Müller et al. 2003 [136] Optical biopsy 7.9 Prospective Massachusetts Institute of Technology USA National Institutes of Health 91 tissue sites from 15 patients
Amelink et al. 2004 [147] Optical biopsy 7.5 Prospective Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Centre The Netherlands Dutch Technology Foundation STW, Applied Science Division of NWO and the Technology Program of the Ministry of Economic Affairs -
Sterenborg et al. 2009 [148] Study type(s) or biopsy 7.6 Prospective Center for Optical Diagnostics and Therapy, Erasmus Medical Centre The Netherlands Dutch Technology Foundation STW, Applied Science Division of NWO and the Technology Program of the Ministry of Economic Affairs 21
de Visscher et al. 2012 [150] Study type(s) or biopsy 7.5 Prospective University Medical Centre Groningen, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Division of Oncology The Netherlands Dutch Technology Foundation STW, Applied Science Division of NWO and the Technology Program of the Ministry of Economic Affairs 54 male Wistar rats
Amelink et al. 2011 [149]   7.7 Prospective Centre for Optical Diagnostics and Therapy, Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Centre The Netherlands Dutch Technology Foundation STW, Applied Science Division of NWO and the Technology Program of the Ministry of Economic Affairs 18
Karakullukcu et al. 2011 [151] Study type(s) or biopsy 7.6 Prospective The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Head and Neck Oncology and Surgery The Netherlands Dutch Technology Foundation STW, Applied Science Division of NWO and the Technology Program of the Ministry of Economic Affairs -
Kanick et al. 2008 [152] Study type(s) or biopsy 7.5 Prospective Erasmus Medical Centre, Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre for Optical Diagnostics and Therapy The Netherlands Dutch Technology Foundation STW, Applied Science Division of NWO and the Technology Program of the Ministry of Economic Affairs -
Adalsteinsson et al. 1998 [174] Study type(s) or biopsy 7.5 Prospective Department of Radiology, Stanford University USA - 12
El-Sayed et al. 2002 [175] Study type(s) or biopsy 7.8 Prospective Cancer Care Manitoba Canada Cancer Care Manitoba 135
Maheshwari et al. 2000 [176] Study type(s) or biopsy 7.6 Prospective Department of Radiology, University of North Carolina USA University of North Carolina 37
Mukherji et al. 1997 [177] Study type(s) or biopsy 7.8 Prospective Department of Radiology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine USA - 49
Kunkel et al. 2003 [178] Biochemical 7.8 Prospective Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital Mainz Germany - 118