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Table 1 Classification of facial palsy and guidelines for their surgical reanimation (modified after [4])

From: Modern concepts in facial nerve reconstruction

Classification Comments
A. Congenital  
A.1 syndromal
A.2 non-syndromal
Mostly nerve plasty not possible; cortical deficits hinder additional mimic and physical training.
B. Acquired  
B.1 traumatic
B.1.1 extracranial
B.1.2 intracranial
Trauma: Exact localisation of lesion site mandatory. Acute nerve reconstruction only superior to conservative treatment in case of complete palsy.
B.2 tumourous
B.2.1 extracranial
B.2.1.1 benign
Tumour: Prognosis quoad vitam must be considered: prefer fast rehabilitation techniques.
B.2.1.2 malignant  
B.2.2 intracranial
B.2.2.1 benign
B.2.2.2 malignant
Intracranial: Reconstruction strategy without co-adaptation of the proximal facial nerve stump often the better choice.
B.3 infectious
B.3.1 acute
B.3.2 chronic
Infectious: Causal therapy in front, wait for reconstruction surgery after complete healing and look on remaining deficits.
B.4 neuromuscular
B.4.1 Endplate region
B.4.2 ganglional
B.4.3 axonal
Neuromuscular: Domain of conservative neurologic treatment.