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Table 2 Incidence of elongation of the internal carotid artery and associated curving/kinking/tortuosity and coiling/looping reported in some countries.

From: Unilateral congenital elongation of the cervical part of the internal carotid artery with kinking and looping: two case reports and review of the literature

Authors Year Country Number of all studied cases Curving, Kinking, Tortuosity Coiling, Looping
     No of cases % No of cases %
Borioni et al [21] 1994 Italy 653 37 6.7 - -
Koskas et al [32] 1993 France 2304 139 6.0 35 1.5
La Barbera et al [33] 2006 Italy 169 10 5.9 - -
Pancera et al [29] 2000 Italy 590 368 62.4 - -
Paulsen et al [8] 2000 Germany 282 86 30.5 5 1.8
Poulias et al [50] 1996 Greece 1123 38 3.4 21 1.9
Tillmann et al [18] 1995 Germany 89 4 4.5 - -
Togay-Isikay et al [24] 2005 Turkey 345 78 22.6 7 2.0
Van Damme et al [26] 1996 Belgium 2188 62 2.8 - -
Our study 2007 Trinidad 14 1 7.1 1 7.1