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Table 1 Animal models related to traumatic TMJ ankylosis in the past 40 years

From: Current concepts in the pathogenesis of traumatic temporomandibular joint ankylosis

Author Year Animal Age/weight Group n Last Time-point Induction methods Results
        Bilateral/ unilateral Condyle Disc Glenoid fossa Others  
Stevenson[30] 1979 Baboon Juvenile 1 1 32 weeks Bilateral Not handled Not handled Not handled Prolonged immobilization until sacrifice No ankylosis
    Juvenile 2 1 32 weeks Bilateral Bilateral fracture Not handled Not handled Prolonged immobilization until sacrifice No ankylosis
    Juvenile 3 2 32 weeks Bilateral Bilateral fracture Bilateral discectomy Not handled Immobilization for 6 weeks No ankylosis
    Juvenile 4 2 32 weeks Bilateral Bilateral fracture Bilateral discectomy Not handled Prolonged immobilization until sacrifice Fibrous ankylosis
Markey et al.[34] 1980 Monkey 23–27 months 1 2 1 year Unilateral Intracapsular condylar fracture Not handled Not handled Intermaxillary fixation for 10 weeks No ankylosis
    22–26 months 2 2 8 months Unilateral Intracapsular condylar fracture with inversion of condylar head Not handled Not handled Intermaxillary fixation for 10 weeks No ankylosis
    22–26 months 3 2 6 months Unilateral Intracapsular condylar fracture with inversion of condylar head Discectomy Removal of temporal surface until bleeding Intermaxillary fixation for 10 weeks No ankylosis
Hohl et al.[35] 1981 Monkey 1–2 years 1 2 16 months Unilateral Morcellate condylar head Discectomy Decorticated Bone graft in joint space One was complete ankylosis, the other partial ankylosis.
Ishimaru and Goss[36] 1992 Sheep Adult/60 kg 1 5 3 months Unilateral Removal of fibrous layer and underlying cartilage of the condyle Not handled Not handled No Osteoarthritis: eburnated condyle with osteophytes, thin or perforated discs, and temporal surface proliferation
Ogi et al.[37] 1996 Sheep Adult/60 kg 1 4 6 months Bilateral Removal of fibrous layer and cartilage of the bilateral condyle 3 months later removal the unilateral disc Not handled No No ankylosis: fibrous repair of the articular surfaces
Yao et al.[38] 1999 Minipig Young 1 6 6 months Unilateral Transverse fracture Not handled Not handled No TMJ adaptive changes
     2 6 6 months Unilateral Longitudinal fracture (namely Sagittal condylar fracture) Not handled Not handled No No ankylosis: bifid condyle deformity and adhesion between disc and condyle
Miyamoto et al.[32] 1999 Sheep Adult 1 6 3 months Unilateral Exision of 5 mm condylar head Not handled Removal of temporal surface until bleeding No No ankylosis: fibrous repair of the articular surfaces
     2 6 3 months Unilateral Exision of 5 mm condylar head discectomy Removal of temporal surface until bleeding No Fibrous ankylosis
Miyamoto et al.[39] 2000 Sheep Adult 1 6 3 months Unilateral Exision of 5 mm condylar head discectomy Removal of temporal surface until bleeding No Fibrous ankylosis
     2 6 3 months Unilateral Exision of 5 mm condylar head discectomy Removal of temporal surface until bleeding Insertion of intra-articular bone fragment More extensive fibrous ankylosis with isolated bony island in the joint space
Miyamoto et al.[29] 2000 Sheep Adult 1 9 3 months Unilateral Exision of 5 mm condylar head discectomy Removal of temporal surface until bleeding No Fibrous ankylosis
     2 9 3 months Unilateral Exision of 5 mm condylar head discectomy Removal of temporal surface until bleeding Limit jaw movements by a wire Fibrous ankylosis was hastened at early stage, but not at advanced stage
Ozten et al.[40] 2004 Guinea pigs Young/250 g 1 10 2 months Bilateral /unilateral Not handled Not handled Not handled Autologous blood injection into joint space No ankylosis
     2 10 2 months Bilateral /unilateral Damage the articular surface by blunt trauma Preservation of disc Damage the articular surface by blunt trauma No They claimed fibrous tissue formed in the joint, and ankylosis was achieved.
     3 10 2 months Bilateral /unilateral Condyle neck fracture Not handled Not handled No No ankylosis
     4 10 2 months Bilateral /unilateral Excision of condyle head Not handled Not handled no They claimed marked osseous tissue formed, and ankylosis was achieved.
Long and Goss[41, 42] 2007 Sheep 2-year-old 1 10 12 weeks Unilateral Type B intracapsular condylar fracture Disc displacement Not handled No Osteoarthritis with progressive changes toward ankylosis
Cheung et al.[23] 2007 Minipig and goat About 40 kg for minipig, 22 kg for gaots 1 3 + 3 3 months Bilateral Exision of 8 mm condylar head Discectomy on one side, disc preservation on the other side Not handled on the side of disc preservation, roughed the glenoid fossa on the side of discectomy Autogenous bone graft on the side of discectomy Fibrous ankylosis or fibro-bony ankylosis on the side of discectomy, no ankylosis on the side of disc preservation
   Goat About 27 kg 2 3 3 months Bilateral Exision of 8 mm condylar head Discectomy Roughed the glenoid fossa Autogenous bone graft bony ankylosis on both sides
Porto et al.[20] 2008 Rat Adult 1 30 90 days Unilateral Damaged by a file Disc removal Damaged by a file No Fibrous ankylosis, no bony bridge was observed
Li et al.[21] 2009 Rat 1-month-old/growing 1 12 12 weeks Unilateral Damage to the condylar cartilage with displaced subcondylar head fracture Damaged the attachments of disc Not handled No Fibrous ankylosis
     2 12 12 weeks Unilateral Displaced subcondylar head fracture Not handled Not handled No No ankylosis
Porto et al.[43] 2011 Rat Adult 1 18 60 days Unilateral Damaged by a file Disc removal Damaged by a file Bone graft in joint space Fibrous ankylosis, no bony bridge was observed
     2 18 60 days Unilateral Damaged by a file Disc removal Damaged by a file Stem cells placed in joint space Fibrous ankylosis with cartilage, but no bony bridge was observed
Rodrigues et al.[33] 2011 Rat Adult 1 15 3 months Unilateral Not handled Not handled Not handled A hypoprotein diet Atrophy of the fibrocartilage of the articular surfaces
     2 15 3 months Unilateral Condylar fracture Not handled Not handled A hypoprotein diet Fibrous ankylosis
     3 15 3 months Unilateral Condylar fracture Not handled Not handled An ordinary diet Fracture healing normally
Yan et al.[22] 2013 Sheep About 20 kg 1 6 6 months Bilateral Sagittal condylar fracture Discectomy on one side, disc preservation on the other side Not handled on the side of disc preservation, minor damage to the glenoid fossa on the side of discectomy No Fibrous ankylosis on the side of discectomy, no ankylosis on the side of disc preservation
    About 20 kg 2 7 6 months Bilateral Sagittal condylar fracture Discectomy on one side, disc preservation on the other side Not handled on the side of disc preservation, severe damage to the glenoid fossa on the side of discectomy No Fibro-bony ankylosis and bony ankylosis on the side of discectomy, no ankylosis on the side of disc preservation