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Table 1 Location of investigations, aetiology of injury and gender distribution.

From: Trends and characteristics of oral and maxillofacial injuries in Nigeria: a review of the literature

Author (Ref.-No.) Locationa Major cause of injury 2nd major cause of injury % motorcycle related Male/female ratio (%) Tissue affected
Ajagbe et al. (21) Ibadan (SW) RTC (63) Falls (19) 10 2.1:1 Hard Tissue
Nwoku et al. (36) Lagos (SW) RTC ## ### 3:1 Hard/Soft Tissues
Ajagbe et al. (34) Ibadan (SW) RTC Falls 15.7 3:1 Hard Tissue
Adekeye (47) Kaduna (NC) RTC (76) Assaults (13) 22 16.9:1 Hard/Soft Tissues
Adekeye (48) Kaduna (NC) RTC (82) Falls ### 24:1 Hard Tissue
Adekeye (49) Kaduna (NC) RTC ## ### 2:1 Hard Tissue
Nyako (23) Ibadan (SW) RTC (77) Assaults (9) 10.6 6.4:1 Hard Tissue
Odusanya (41) Ife (SW) RTC (53) Falls 22.1 5.4:1 Hard Tissue
Abiose (22) Ibadan (SW) RTC (81) Assaults (9) ### 5.5:1 Hard Tissue
Akinwande (37) Lagos (SW) RTC (65) Assaults (12) 18.5 4.2:1 Hard/Soft Tissues
Abiose (32) Ibadan (SW) RTC (81) Assaults (7) ### 14:1 Hard Tissue
Arotiba (38) Lagos (SW) RTC (100) # 6.3 2.3:1 Hard Tissue
Arotiba (39) Lagos (SW) RTC (63) Assaults (20) 4 2.1:1 Hard Tissue
Oji (15) Enugu (SE) RTC (83) Assaults (8) 21 3:1 Hard Tissue
Ogunbodede (52) Sokoto (NW) bCamel bite # # # Hard/Soft Tissues
Denloye et al. (33) Ibadan (SW) RTC (47) Falls (41) ### 1.8:1 Hard/Soft Tissues
Ugboko et al. (1) Ife (SW) RTC (72) Falls (11) 14.5 4.1:1 Hard/Soft Tissues
Akinwande et al. (40) Lagos (SW) bGunshots (100) # # 5.1:1 Hard/Soft Tissues
Oji (55) Enugu (SE) RTC (28) Assaults (25) 5 2.6:1 Hard Tissue
Ugboko et al. (46) Ife (SW) RTC (50) Falls (31) 1.9 6.4:1 Hard/Soft Tissues
Oji (16) Enugu (SE) RTC (83) Assaults (8) 21 3:1 Hard Tissue
Olasoji (53) Maiduguri (NE) bAssaults (100) # # 2.5:1 Hard/Soft Tissues
Ugboko et al. (42) Ife (SW) bGunshots (100) # # 21:1 Hard /Soft Tissues
Fasola et al. (28) Ibadan (SW) bSports (100) # # 4.1:1 Hard Tissue
Fasola et al. (30) Ibadan (SW) RTC (38) Falls (25) ### 2.6:1 Soft Tissue
Fasola et al. (19) Ibadan (SW) RTC (79) Assaults (9) ### 7.6:1 Hard/Soft Tissues
Fasola et al. (25) Ibadan (SW) RTC (52) Falls (24) 3.2 2.6:1 Hard/Soft Tissues
Fasola et al. (26) Ibadan (SW) RTC (53) Falls (24) ### 2.8:1 Hard Tissue
Olasoji et al. (4) Maiduguri (NE) Assaults (48) RTC (36) 9 2.2:1 Hard /Soft Tissues
Olasoji et al. (54) Maiduguri (NE) RTC (54) Falls (25) 2 7.5:1 Hard/Soft Tissues
Ugboko et al. (51) North (NE, NW, NC) bAnimal attacks # # 4:1 Hard/Soft Tissues
Oginni et al. (43) Ife (SW) bDog bites # # 5:3 Soft Tissue
Oginni et al. (44) Ife (SW) Falls (38) RTC (33) # 1.4:1 Soft Tissue
Fasola et al. (29) Ibadan (SW) RTC (76) Assaults (9) ### 2.7:1 Hard/Soft Tissues
Fasola et al. (31) Ibadan (SW) RTC (82) Sports (8) ### 5.3:1 Hard Tissue
Fasola et al. (18) Ibadan (SW) RTC (69) Assaults (12) 20.6 3.3:1 Hard Tissue
Fasola et al. (24) Ibadan (SW) RTC (69) # 15.1 2.9:1 Hard Tissue
Fasola et al. (27) Ibadan (SW) RTC (59) Falls (21) 1.9 1:1 Hard Tissue
Saheeb et al. (56) Benin (SS) RTC (66) Assaults (10) 26.5 2.7:1 Hard /Soft Tissues
Adebayo et al. (50) Kaduna (NC) RTC (56) Falls (24) ### 4.7:1 Hard Tissue
Bankole et al. (35) Ibadan (SW) Falls (66) RTC (18) ### 2.3:1 Soft Tissue
Ugboko et al. (45) Ife (SW) RTC (74) Falls/Assaults (14) 9.4 6:1 Hard Tissue
  1. a(SW) South-west, (SE) South-east (SS) South-south, (NW) North-west, (NE) North-east, (NC) North-central
  2. bPublications on a single specific etiology
  3. RTC = road traffic crash
  4. # = not applicable
  5. ## = not specified
  6. ### = not separately classified